Hardy-Ramanujan Journal |
Let $c>\sqrt{2}$ and let $p$ be a prime number. J-M. Deshouillers and G. A. Freiman proved that a subset $\mathcal A$ of $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$, with cardinality larger than $c\sqrt{p}$ and such that its subset sums do not cover $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ has an isomorphic image which is rather concentrated; more precisely, there exists $s$ prime to $p$ such that $$\sum_{a\in\mathcal A}\Vert\frac{as}{p}\Vert < 1+O(p^{-1/4}\ln p),$$ where the constant implied in the ``O'' symbol depends on $c$ at most. We show here that there exist a $K$ depending on $c$ at most, and such sets $\mathcal A$, such that for all $s$ prime to $p$ one has $$ \sum_{a\in\mathcal A}\Vert\frac{as}{p}\Vert>1+Kp^{-1/2}.$$
According to the Six Exponentials Theorem, a $2\times 3$ matrix whose entries $\lambda_{ij}$ ($i=1,2$, $j=1,2,3$) are logarithms of algebraic numbers has rank $2$, as soon as the two rows as well as the three columns are linearly independent over the field $\BbbQ$ of rational numbers. The main result of the present note is that one at least of the three $2\times 2$ determinants, viz. $$ \lambda_{21}\lambda_{12}-\lambda_{11}\lambda_{22}, \quad \lambda_{22}\lambda_{13}-\lambda_{12}\lambda_{23}, \quad \lambda_{23}\lambda_{11}-\lambda_{13}\lambda_{21} $$ is transcendental.
In this paper we study the upper bound for the absolute value of the exponential sum related to the Möbius function unconditionally and present some interesting applications also.
Let $c>\sqrt{2}$ and let $p$ be a prime number. J-M. Deshouillers and G. A. Freiman proved that a subset $\mathcal A$ of $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$, with cardinality larger than $c\sqrt{p}$ and such that its subset sums do not cover $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ has an isomorphic image which is rather concentrated; more precisely, there exists $s$ prime to $p$ such that $$\sum_{a\in\mathcal A}\Vert\frac{as}{p}\Vert < 1+O(p^{-1/4}\ln p),$$ where the constant implied in the ``O'' symbol depends on $c$ at most. We show here that there exist a $K$ depending on $c$ at most, and such sets $\mathcal A$, such that for all $s$ prime to $p$ one has $$ \sum_{a\in\mathcal A}\Vert\frac{as}{p}\Vert>1+Kp^{-1/2}.$$